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The former colony of Northern Rhodesia, previously part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland since 1953, marked this historic event with a ceremony at the Independence Stadium in the capital, Lusaka. At present, Lusaka hosts the headquarters of 15 African freedom movements, among them Zanu and Zapu from Rhodesia. During the celebration, a massive copper torch was lit on a hill overlooking the city. The Queen’s representative, the Princess Royal, presented the Instruments of Independence to the new president of the country, Kenneth Kaunda.